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Canadian Federalism


Canadian Federalism

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Inforgraphic: Tear Down These Walls: Dismantling Canada's Internal Trade Barriers
This infographic lists ten weird trade barriers that exist between provinces in Canada.

Ss. 91, 92 and 121 of the Constitution Act, 1867 (Canada)
These documents set out sections 91, 92, 92A, and 121 of the Canadian Constitution. Sections 91 and 92 set out the division of powers between the federal and provincial governments. Section 121 provides for free inter-provincial trade.

Infographic: Do you see the contradiction?
This infographic highlights the tension between Constitutional trade provisions contained in ss. 91, 92 and 121 of the Canadian Constitution.

Infographic: The Double-Aspect Doctrine
This infographic illustrates the concept of the Double Aspect Doctrine.

Gold Seal Ltd. v. Alberta (Attorney-General), (1921), 62 S.C.R. 424
In the Gold Seal case, the plaintiff was unable to export and import liquor products across provincial lines. The solicitor for the appellant argued that interprovincial trade barriers contradicted section 121 of the Constitution Act, 1867. In this…

From the website: "The Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) is an intergovernmental trade agreement signed by Canadian First Ministers that came into force in 1995. Its purpose is to reduce and eliminate, to the extent possible, barriers to the free…

Reference re Validity of Section 5 (a) Dairy Industry Act, [1949] S.C.R. 1
In this case, the Supreme Court of Canada was asked to assess the constitutional validity of a federal government statute that prohibited the import, manufacture, and sale of margarine in Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada held that while the…

This hyperlink leads to a CBC news story about Quebec's decision to repeal its margarine legislation. This legislation (which was similar to legislation in other provinces) required manufacturers of margarine to ensure that the product's colour was…

R v Comeau, 2016 NBPC 3 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2017-03-10
This document is a decision of LeBlanc J (NBPC) in R. v. Comeau (R v Comeau, 2016 NBPC 3). Comeau was charged under the New Brunswick Liquor Control Act for having in his possession liquor that he purchased outside the Province of New Brunswick. Mr.…
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