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Awad, S. H. & Wagoner, B. (2020). Protest Symbols. Current Opinion in Psychology 35, 39-102.

Carter, C. & Hake, T. (2020). Button power: 125 years of saying it with buttons. Princeton Architectural Press.

Fitzpatrick, M. (2012). 'Harper Hates Me' buttons spark conflict in public service. CBC.

Harper, G. (n.d.). Canadian political pinback buttons. WayBack Times.

Hyatt Regency Montréal et STT de l'Hôtel Méridien de Montréal (CSN)(74-2010), Re., (2015), 288 CQCTA (Laplante).

Lafer, G. & Loustaunau, L. (2020). Fear at work: An inside account of how employers threaten, intimidate, and harass workers to stop them from exercising their right to collective bargaining. Economic Policy Institute.

Martin, P. (2002). The Trade Union Badge: Material Culture in Action. Ashgate.

Norton Rose Fulbright. (2016). Workplace pressure tactics don’t always warrant protection as freedom of expression.

Smith, J. (2012, June 29). Public servants defend right to wear ‘Stephen Harper hates me’ buttons. The Toronto Star.


Alnwick, J. (2001). State of the Union. Review of Journalism.

Block, I. (1974). Quick mail only without postal code, union warns. The Montreal Gazette.

Boycott Eaton's. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Brantley, A. P. (2019). Shouldn’t You Be Boycotting Coors?: Ephemera, Boycotting Counterpublics, and the Campaign against Coors Beer. Radical History Review, 134, 142-167.

Canadian Press. (1999, December 17). Labour groups urge boycott of National Post. The Globe and Mail.

Carleton, S. (2014, December 8). Here We Come A-Picketing: Christmas Carols, Class Conflict, and the Eaton's Strike, 1984-85 [Video]. YouTube.

Carleton, S., & Smith, J. (2014, December 14). Here We come a-picketing! Christmas carols, class conflict, and the Eaton’s strike, 1984-85. Active History. 

CBC Archives. (2018). A chilly reception for the postal code. CBC.

CBC News. (1999, November 8). Calgary Herald on strike. CBC.

CBC News. (2000, May 1). Travelers asked to boycott National Post. CBC.

Clara Thomas Archives & Special Collections. (2014). Boycott Eaton's button. York University.

Custom Pin Buttons. HAS Marketing.

Demarino, G. (1975, January 7). Will 'gentle persuasion' aid postal code?. The Montreal Gazette.

Doyle Driedger, S. (1987, July 13). The Lessons of Eaton's. Maclean's.

Eaton's Strike and Solidarity 1984-1985. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Friedman, M. (1999). Consumer boycotts: effecting change through the marketplace and the media. Routledge.

Harris, P. (2007, February 25). Last stand of a broken tycoon. The Guardian.

Hong, C., & Li, C. (2021). Will Consumers Silence Themselves When Brands Speak up about Sociopolitical Issues? Applying the Spiral of Silence Theory to Consumer Boycott and Buycott Behaviors. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 33(2), 193–211.

Jacobson, K. & Gillies, R. (Hosts). (2020, January 12). The 1999-2000 Herald Strike, 20 Years Later[Audio podcast episode]. In Alberta Advantage. Soundcloud.

Lu, V. (1999, December 19). Labour allies aim to boycott National Post; Call for end to bitter strike at Calgary Herald. Toronto Star.

Matas, R. (2000, May 2). Airport protests in 10 Canadian cities won't hurt National Post, executive says. The Globe and Mail.

McNenly, P. (1975, March 21). Coded mail boycott is a flop post office officials declare. Toronto Star.

Monsebraaten, L. (1985, March 3). Feminists bolster picket line, help strikers to close Eaton’s. Toronto Star.

Morissette, M. (1976, September 17). Postal union chiefs claim pact violated, threaten to retaliate. The Montreal Gazette.

Oxford English Dictionary. (n.d.). Boycott. In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from

Roy, A. (2000, June). Boycott National Post: workers across the country take on Conrad Black. Briarpatch, 29(5), 11.|A30586766&v=2.1&it=r

Todd, P. (1985, March 10). Women’s Day Marchers Storm Eaton’s store. Toronto Star.

Wainwright, K. (2019, March 08). When strikers stormed Eaton’s flagship department store. TVO.

Women and Unions

A woman's place is in her union. Busy Beaver Button Museum.

A woman's place is in her union. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

About CLUW. Coalition of Labor Union Women.

About Us. Ontario Equal Pay Coalition.

Babad, M. (1986, June 10). Canadian UAW splits from U.S. union. UPI.

Canadian Auto Workers/United Auto Workers in Canada. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Creator Record. Grey Roots Museum & Archives.

CUPW. (2017, December). Women in the postal service: a history of struggle. The Rose, 18(1).

Deveau, S. (2012, August 4). A tale of two negotiating tables: CAW vs. UAW. Financial Post.

Equal Pay Coalition of Ontario. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Goldrick-Jones, A. (2004). The ribbon and the rose: Visual rhetorics against violence to women. Ethnologies, 26(1), 95-123.

Government of Canada. (2016). Equal pay for work of equal value.

History of Pay Equity Advocacy in Ontario. Ontario Equal Pay Coalition.

International Women's Day. (2020, November 19). History of International Women's Day.

International Women's Day. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Kirton, G. (2017). From ‘a woman’s place is in her union’ to ‘strong unions need women’: Changing gender discourses, policies and realities in the union movement. Labour & Industry, 27(4), 270-83).

Labour movement and women's equality. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

National Conference of Women in Trades. (1980). Women in Trades.

Pay Equity v. Equal Pay for Equal Work: They're not the same. Pay Equity Office.

Rosenfeld, H. (2005, July 31). Reflections on the Birth of the Canadian Auto Workers. Labornotes.

Ross, S. & Savage, L. (2020, August 26). How women are changing the face of Canada’s union leadership. The Conversation.

Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2021). What is Pay Equity.

White, J. (1993). Sisters & Solidarity: Women and Unions in Canada. Thompson Educational Pub. 

Women's Liberation. Busy Beaver Button Museum. 

Free Trade

CBC Learning. (n.d.). Bringing down the barriers. CBC.

Free Day Care not Free Trade. Rise Up Feminist Archive.

Malcolm, A. H. (1988, November 19). In Canada, 'No, Eh?' As Protest. The New York Times.

Prentice, S. (n.d.). Free day care, not free trade. Linking Culture(s).

The Canadian Day Care Advocacy Association. (n.d.) Bill C-144: A Critique of the Proposed Canada Child Care Act.

Wilkinson, B. W. (2006, February 7). Free Trade. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Mike Harris and the Common Sense Revolution

About Us. Cavan Advertising.

Bergman, B. & Fennell, T. (1996, April 8). A bitter civil service strike ends in a draw. Maclean's.

Bradburn, J. (2018, June 6). In the mood for cuts: How the ‘Common Sense Revolution’ swept Ontario in 1995. TVO Today.

Brennan, R. (1998, October 17). Harris won't apologize for policies: Ontario government did what was best despite opposition, premier says. The Ottawa Citizen.

CBC Archives. (2020, February 21). Why Ontario teachers went on a province-wide strike in 1997. CBC.,to%20education%20in%20the%20province

Gollom, M. (1998, October 18). Protesters challenge Harris: `Call election' becomes rallying cry. Ottawa Citizen.

Kennedy, B. (2020, October 19). Twenty-five years after ‘welfare diet’ debacle, social assistance still hasn’t recovered from Mike Harris cuts. Toronto Star.

La Botz, D. (2011, March 9). Ontario's 'Days of Action' - A Citywide Political Strike Offers A Potential Example for Madison. Labornotes.

MacDonald, M. (1996, July 29). Literary lights out. Macleans.

MacNeil, M. (2021, February 22). ‘Hamilton Action Days’ was a historic labour protest. The Spec.

Nesbitt, D. (2018, June 6). Four labour lessons from the Harris years. Rank and File.

OPSEU. (2014, March 21). History of OPSEU: 1980s-1990s.

Rankin, J. (2016, March 19). Violence at OPSEU strike felt 20 years later. The Toronto Star.

Toronto's Days of Action. Alternative Toronto.

Specific Causes

Canadian Museum of History. (2010, April 21). Making Medicare: The History of Health Care in Canada, 1914-2007.

Framework for discussion regarding the relationship between the University of Toronto and the University of Toronto Faculty Association. UTFA.

McMaster University Archives & Research Collections. (n.d.) United Steelworkers of America. District 6 (Toronto, Ont.) fonds. [Finding aid]. United Steelworkers of America District 6 fonds (RC0048). McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Contracting out. In dictionary. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from,contracted%20out%20its%20manufacturing%20jobs.

Mietkiewicz, H. & Foster, J. (1980, June 12). Forecast: Long, hot summer of unemployment. Toronto Star.

Past Agreements. UTFA.

Simmons, L. (2007). 50th Anniversary. Ontario Federation of Labour.

United Steelworkers [@SteelworkersCA]. (2016, May 26). Since we just celebrated our 74th b-day, here's a #USWtbt of our very first logo as the United Steeloworkers! #canlab [Tweet]. Twitter.

University of Toronto Governing Council. (2016, July 1). Memorandum of Agreement between The Governing Council of the University of Toronto and The University of Toronto Faculty Association. University of Toronto.

UTFA. (n.d.) It's Time...[Pamphlet]. UT Librarians.

UTFA. (2014, December 3). SJAC Joint Statement by UTFA & the Administration: Teaching Stream Policy Changes.

UTFA. (2014, October). Special Joint Advisory Committee Tentative Agreement October 2014.

Welcome to UTFA. UTFA.

General Support

Bazaar and Novelty. Bazaar & Novelty.

Canadian Federation of Students. Victories.

Canadian Federation of Students. What we do.

Canadian Federation of Students - Ontario. (2019). 2019 Annual Report.

1965: Public service workers win bargaining rights. Canadian Labour Congress.

Chorniawy, C. D. & Levine, G. (2015, July 24). CUPW Postal Strikes. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Condé, C. & Beveridge, K. (n.d.). About Condé + Beveridge.

Connexions. (2016). Trade Unionists Peace Committee.

CUPE. (1983). Unions have a roll to play: Peace. The Hospital Guardian 20(2), [6].

CUPE. (2014, April 30). Canada's NDP: Working together.

CUPE. (2019, October 1). Why CUPE supports the NDP.

CUPE. (2015). CUPE and the NDP: Our Roots, Our Party, Our Future.

CUPE 3902. (n.d.). History.,Faculty%20at%20Athabasca%20(3911)

Gagnon, M. (2019, November 18). International Workers' Day (May Day) in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Gerow, J.D. (1984, April 11). Re: April 28 Walk for Peace. [Letter]. Association of University and College Employees (AUCE) fonds (RBSC-ARC-1021-29-02).University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Gregory, Mark. (2003). Peace is Union Business.

May Day Online 2022. United May Day.

McMaster University Archives & Research Collections. (n.d.) Canadian Peace Congress fonds. [Finding aid]. Canadian Peace Congress fonds (RC0168). McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.

Niedoba, S. (2016, July 8). Canada Post and CUPW have a long history of labour disputes. Canadian Business.

People's Voice. (2018, October 18). Changing the Equation: Anti-Austerity organizing in Ontario.

Sask Forward. (2017, April 13). Anti-austerity activist John Clarke: Fighting back.

Taghabon, K. (2021, May 1). A brief history of the International Workers’ Day in Canada. The Hoser.

Our History. USW.