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National and territorial questions

The rise of movements focused on national consciousness and Ukrainian liberation led to publications about Ukrainian land, identity, culture, and nationality. Organizations like the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine and the Ukrainian National Committee of the United States worked to make these issues known to an international audience. The languages of the works in this exhibit – which include English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, and Ukrainian– reflect widespread interest in Ukraine. The Union for the Liberation of Ukraine also supported other nationalist movements by publishing works on Belarusian and Lithuanian liberation.

However, inter-ethnic relations could also turn violent. A severe wave of pogroms, violent attacks against Jews, occurred in Ukraine in 1918-1921. The Army of the Ukrainian National Republic and the pro-tsarist Armed Forces of South Russia perpetrated most of the pogroms, but Bolshevik soldiers and other factions also attacked Jewish communities. The pogroms worsened Jewish-Ukrainian relations and increased Jewish support for the Bolsheviks, who had committed fewer attacks.  

Anṭisemiṭizm un pogromen in Uḳrayne: 1917-1918

Historical study of pogroms in Ukraine in 1917 and 1918.

Biloruske vidrodzhennie = Білоруське відродженнє

A brochure about the emerging Belarusian nationalist movement written by the Belarusian poet, Maksim Bahdanovich.

Chomu my khochemu samostiĭnoï Ukraïny? = Чому ми хочемо самостійної України?

A pamphlet written by Stepan Rudnytskyi under the pseudonim Sh. Levenko describing characteristics of the Ukrainian nationality, from race, language, history, culture, land, and the issue of Ukrainian Independence.

Chuzhyntsi pro ukraïnsku spravu = Чужинці про українську справу

A pamphlet containing short entries on a variety of topics concerning Ukrainian politics and government written by multiple authors.

Das Problem der Ukraina

A brief pamphlet about the 'Ukrainian Question' by the German publicist, Georg Cleinow.

Die grossen politischen Aufgaben des Krieges im Osten und die ukrainische frage

A pamphlet outlining the political landscape required for the establishment of an independent Ukraine in the context of the war as well as the involvement of Germany and Russia.

Galizien : informativer Ueberblick über nationale, wirtschaftliche, soziale und kulturelle Zustände des Landes

An informative overview of Galicia, including a summary of the various national, cultural and political interest groups of the region, by the Austrian Member of Parliament, Yevhen Levytskyi.

Iakoï avtonomiï i federatsiï khoche Ukraïna = Якої автономії і федерації хоче Україна

A pamphlet by the historian, Mykhaĭlo Hrushevskyĭ, outlining the political goal for a national-territorial autonomy of Ukraine as a part of Russia.

Iak zhyvet sia ukraïnskomu narodovy v Avstriï = Як живеть ся українському народови в Австрії

A pamphlet about the conditions for Ukrainians and Ukrainian autonomy in Austria-Hungary, including a brief overview of Ukrainian educational, cultural, and economic organizations.

Lytovtsi = Литовці

A brochure situating Lithuania's relations with Germany, Poland, and Russia, which provides a brief overview of the current status of matters concerning the Lithuanian nation, ranging from topics on language, press, politics, among others.

Memorandum to the Government of the United States on the Recognition of the Ukrainian People's Republic

A memorandum presented by the diplomatic representative of the Ukrainian People's Republic, Julian Batchinsky, to the American Secretary of State in Washington, which sets forth, 'the just claims of the Ukrainian people to political and economic independence'.

Na oboronu demokratiï -- proty tsaryzmu! = На оборону демократії -- проти царизму!

Ukrainian translation of Alexander Parvus' 'Fur die Demokratie - gegen den Zarismus', which considers the possibility of Tsarist Russia winning the war and the political fallout for the powers of the Entente and the Alliance.

Ne osvoboditelka, a potisnitsa na naroditie

Political pamphlet of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine denouncing Russian 'liberation' and what it means for the independence movement in Ukraine as well as geopolitical consequences for the Balkan states.

Polen von der Ostsee bis zum Schwarzen Meer

A brochure written by the Ukrainian historian, Stepan Tomashivsky under the pseudonim 'Polschtschak', about the Polish political goals of independence concerning Russia and Ukraine outlined through a historical overview, warning against the potential annexation of Ukraine to the newly forming state of Poland.

Rusia taristă : asupritoarea popoarelor

A brochure published by the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine containing a foreword by Romanian historian, Zamfir Arbure, as well as a historical piece by Lonhyn Tsehelsky.

Russia, Poland and the Ukraine

Two chapters from Gustaf F. Steffen's book 'Krig och Kultur' translated from Swedish into English, about the 'plight of the Ukrainian population of southern Russia'.

The Russian plot to seize Galicia (Austrian Ruthenia)

Second edition of Stepankowsky's 1914 pamphlet, expanded with more American press coverage of Galicia, as well as including a bibliography on literature on the 'Ukrainian Question'.

Tserkovnyĭ bik ukraïnskoï spravy = Церковний бік української справи

A pamphlet outlining the Russian Orthodox Church's connection to the Ukrainian lands, a brief history of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, as well as the presence of the Roman Catholic Church in Ukrainian lands.

L'Ucraina e gli ucraini

A pamphlet covering information relating to Ukraine on the Ukrainian lands, nationality, race, language, history, culture, and the significance of Ukraine.

Ukraina és az ukrainaiak : magyarország oroszföldi barátai

A pamphlet covering information relating to Ukraine on the Ukrainian lands, nationality, race, language, history, culture, and the significance of Ukraine, with a special dedication to the 'benevolence of the Hungarians'.

Ukraina und die Ukrainer

A pamphlet covering information relating to Ukraine on the Ukrainian lands, nationality, race, language, history, culture, and the significance of Ukraine.

Ukraina und ihre internationale politische Bedeutung

A pamphlet on the 'Ukrainian question' including the history of Ukraine and the current Russian occupation of the regions of Bukovina and Galicia.

Ukraine on the road to freedom

Selection of articles, reprints, and communications concerning the Ukrainian people in Europe, published by the Ukrainian National Committee of the United States in 1919.

Ukraine, Poland, and Russia and the right of the free disposition of the peoples

A brochure by Serhii Shelukyn, outlining the pre-World War I context of the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires referred to as the 'prison of nationalities', where the fight for Ukrainian self-determination takes place between the Poles, Russians, and Ukrainians.

The Ukrainians and the European war

Articles by various authors, chiefly reprinted from English and American periodicals concerning the Ukrainian or Ruthenian nationality.

Ukrainstvoto, niemska intriga li e?

A pamphlet by the Ukrainophil journalist, Lonhyn Tsehelsky titled, 'Is the Ukrainian Movement a German Intrigue?', which was a response to two journalists in the Russophil Ukrainian press, N. Bobchev and T.Romanchuk, claiming the League for Liberation of Ukraine was the result of a German plot.

Wie die Polen ihre Freiheit verstehen

A manuscript which provides a brief overview of Polish history and discusses the 'Polish question' in the context of World War I, and within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

National and territorial questions